# Continuing Physics: NCEA Level 3 (2e)

##### Description

Designed to support the classroom, laboratory work and revision required for NCEA Level 3 Physics.

Features include:

• plain language learning objectives to focus student study

• easy-to-read notes containing the essential information students need

• clear, simple diagrams

• margin space for additional definitions or notes (ideal for ESOL students)

• review questions with write-on spaces that invite completion - plus NCEA style AME marking schedules

• a practical section that covers all the essential practicals at this level and ensures that students will have a record of their lab work for revision at the end of the year.

The companion CD is intended for home use. It includes:

• links to hundreds of interactive simulations and other web resources, carefully chosen for their applicability to this course

• data for the practicals

• judgement statements for the questions.

##### Table of contents

**Contents
**Preface

**Physics 3.4 TOPIC ONE: TRANSLATIONAL MOTION**

Translational Kinematics

• Vector and scalar quantities

• Definitions and symbols

• Translational kinematics equations

Forces and Newton ’s laws

• Newton ’s three laws of motion

• Free body diagrams

• Extension: Connected particles

Components

• Circular motion

Conservation Laws

• Momentum

• Conservation of momentum

• Impulse

• Conservation of energy

• Work, energy and power

Centre of Mass

• Formula for centre of mass position

• Formulae for centre of mass velocity and acceleration

• Motion of the centre of mass

Gravitation

• Newton ’s law of gravitation

• Extension: The Earth’s gravitational field

Satellites

• Extension: Kepler’s three laws

• Extension: Binary star systems

Exercise One: Translational Mechanics

**Physics 3.4 TOPIC TWO: ROTATIONAL MOTION**

Rotational Kinematics

• Connecting formulae

• Rotational kinematics equations

Force and Torque

• Torque

• External forces

• The effect of forces on the motion of an object

Angular Momentum and Planetary Motion

• Angular momentum

• Conservation of angular momentum

• Planetary motion

• Newton ’s laws in rotational form

Rotational Inertia

• A formula for I

Rolling Motion

• Kinetic energy

Exercise Two: Rotational Motion

**Physics 3.4 TOPIC THREE: SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION**

Introduction to Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

• Definition of simple harmonic motion

• Hooke’s law

Reference Circle

Graphs, Phasors and Equations

• Phasors

• Equations

The Simple Pendulum

• Extension: General programme

Energy of Simple Harmonic Motion

• Introduction

• Potential energy

• Kinetic energy

• Total energy

• Graphs

• Extension: Damped simple harmonic motion

Forced Simple Harmonic Motion and Resonance

Exercise Three: Simple Harmonic Motion

**Physics 3.3 TOPIC FOUR: WAVES 1**

Introduction to Wave Motion

• Longitudinal waves

• Transverse waves

• Wavelength

• Period

• Frequency

• Velocity

• Phase

• Extension: Energy

• Extension: Graphs

• Electromagnetic waves

Superposition and Beats

• Introduction

• Superposition of SHMs of equal frequency

• Beats

• General

Standing Waves

• Introduction

• Standing waves in strings

• Standing waves in air columns

• Extension: Speed of sound in an ideal gas

Exercise Four: Standing Waves and Music

**Physics 3.3 TOPIC FIVE: WAVES 2**

Interference

• Diffraction

• Interference

• Young’s double-slit experiment

• Interference of sound waves

• Double-slit formulae derivation

• The diffraction grating

• Extension: Thin film interference

Earthquakes

• Extension: Speed of waves in elastic media

• Extension: Speed of seismic waves

The Doppler Effect

• Introduction

• Moving source, stationary observer

• Extension: Moving observer, stationary source

• The Doppler effect in astronomy

• Travel at the speed of sound

• Extension: Speed measurement by radar

Exercise Five: Interference and the Doppler Effect

**Physics 3.6 TOPIC SIX: DIRECT CURRENT (DC) ELECTRICITY**

Introduction to DC Electricity

• Current

• Potential

• Ohm’s law

• Extension: Resistivity

• Electrical power

• Transmission of electricity

• Resistances in series

• Resistances in parallel

• Internal resistance

• Extension: Meters

Kirchhoff’s Laws

• Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL)

• Current convention

• Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL)

Exercise Six: DC Circuits

**Physics 3.6 TOPIC SEVEN: CAPACITANCE**

Electric Field Strength

• Field between large parallel plates

• Another important formula for E

Capacitance

• Capacitors

• Capacitance

• The parallel plate capacitor

• Energy stored in a capacitor

• Capacitances in parallel

• Capacitances in series

• Uses of capacitors

RC Circuits

• Charging a capacitor

• Discharging a capacitor

• Time constant

Exercise Seven: Capacitors

**Physics 3.6 TOPIC EIGHT: MAGNETIC FIELDS**

Introductory Concepts

• Magnetic forces

• Force formulae

• Path followed by a charge in a magnetic field

• Fields produced by currents

• Extension: Magnetic field of a long, straight wire

• The coil or solenoid

• Extension: Magnetic field of a long, thin coil

Electromagnetic Induction

• Derivation of formula

• Magnetic flux

• Faraday’s law

• Lenz’s law

• Applications of Faraday’s law

Mutual Inductance

• Introduction

• Mutual inductance

• The transformer

• Telephone wires

Self Inductance

• Introduction

• Formulae

• Energy stored in an inductance

• Real-world inductors

• Extension: Inductance of a solenoid

• Car ignition system

RL Circuits

• Time constant

• Extension: LC circuits

Exercise Eight: Electromagnetic Induction

**Physics 3.6 TOPIC NINE: ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) ELECTRICITY**

RMS Values

• Mains electricity

• Power

• RMS (root mean square) values

AC in a Capacitance

• Introduction

• Reactance of a capacitance

• Phase relationship for a capacitance

AC in an Inductance

• Introduction

• Reactance of an inductance

• Phase relationship for an inductance

Addition of Alternating Voltages

• Alternating current in an RC circuit

• Alternating current in an RL circuit

Resonance

• Applications

• Extension: DC power supplies

Exercise Nine: AC Circuits

**Physics 3.5 TOPIC TEN: MODERN PHYSICS**

The Photoelectric Effect

• Definition

• The experiment

• The results

• The conclusion—the photon model of light

• The wave/particle duality of light

• Extension: Matter waves

Atomic Spectra

• Ionisation and conductivity

• Problems with the Rutherford model of the atom

• The hydrogen line spectrum

• The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom

• Improvements on the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom

• Extension: Relativity

Nuclear Physics

• Symbols

• Isotopes

• Radioactive decay

• Half-life

• Nuclear fission

• Alpha decay

• Beta decay

• Gamma emission

• Nuclear fusion

• Conservation laws for nuclear reactions

• The electron volt

• Nuclear forces

• Binding energy

• Mass deficit

• Nuclear physics applications

Exercise Ten: Modern Physics

**Physics 3.2 TOPIC eleven: APPLICATION OF PHYSICS**

Research Project

• Deciding on a research topic

• Planning

• Presentation

• Depth of study

**Physics 3.7 Topic TWELVE: An Informed Responding to a Socio-Scientific Issue**

An Informed Response

• Examples of socio-scientific issues

• Choosing a socio-scientific issue

• Developing your response

• Presentation

• Depth of study

**Physics 3.1 TOPIC Thirteen : PRACTICAL INVESTIGATIONS**

Uncertainties

• Sources of uncertainty

• Rules for manipulating uncertainties

• Rules for measurements

• Uncertainties and graphs

• Using graphs to find non-linear relationships

• Extension: The use of logarithms in finding non-linear relationships

Exercise Thirteen: Dealing with uncertainties

PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES ONE: TRANSLATIONAL MOTION

• Vertical vector addition

• The conical pendulum

• Trolleys and the centre of mass

PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES TWO: ROTATIONAL MOTION

• Finding the rotational inertia of a wheel

• Finding the rotational inertia of a thin-walled cylinder from the conservation of energy

• Finding rotational inertia from conservation of angular momentum

PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES THREE: SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION

• Factors affecting the period of a simple pendulum (investigation)

• Factors affecting the period of an oscillating mass on the end of a spring (investigation)

PRACTICAL ACTIVITY FOUR: WAVES 1

• Standing waves on a string: the relationship between velocity and tension

PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES FIVE: WAVES 2

• Measuring the track spacings on a CD • Measuring the speed of sound (whole class activity)

PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES SIX: DC ELECTRICITY

• Proof of Kirchoff’s Laws

• The internal resistance of a power pack

PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES SEVEN: CAPACITANCE

• Factors affecting the capacitance of a pair of parallel plates (investigation)

• The time constant for a capacitor–resistor series circuit

PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES EIGHT: MAGNETIC FIELDS

• The time constant for an inductor–resistor series circuit

• Comparing input/output voltages of efficient transformers

PRACTICAL ACTIVITY NINE: AC ELECTRICITY

• Measuring the phase relationships of VR, VC and VL in series circuits

PRACTICAL ACTIVITY TEN: MODERN PHYSICS

• Verifying the Balmer series for hydrogen

PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES ELEVEN: PRACTICAL INVESTIGATIONS

• Accuracy in taking measurements

• Graphical analysis

• Problem solving and experiment design

Formulae List

Index